By Dr. Raghuveer. Y. V.
Principal, Podar International School - ICSE - Aurangabad, Maharashtra
In the era of globalization, the traditional education system is losing its relevance. In today’s world, everything changes very rapidly and continuously. More skills are required to work with very fast-developing technology. Educational institutions should produce graduates to cope with technological development. Thus to overcome the requirement, it is mandatory to shift from the traditional education system to Outcome-Based Education (OBE).
With the growing trend of technological cloud and agile-based delivery, it has become imperative to align learning with attributes such as just in time, skill-based and adaptive, to meet the desired business need. So outcome-based learning (OBL) becomes key to meeting the growing and changing business requirement of having access to the right knowledge, at the right time. The success of Google maps reflects the same where users navigate to locations, just-in-time, Intuitive, target-based and on-demand and is very outcome driven. The learning paradigm is also shifting towards a flexible, results-oriented curriculum.
This makes learning more student-centered. For teachers, instead of focusing on what they want to teach, now they need to think from the learners’ perspectives and focus on how they can help the learners to achieve the intended learning outcomes in an effective and efficient manner.
Crucial steps to implement OBL successfully:
As per Tucker, 2004 “Outcome-based education (OBE) is a process that involves the restructuring of curriculum, assessment and reporting practices in education to reflect the achievement of high order learning and mastery rather than the accumulation of course credits”
As per Wikipedia “Outcome-based education (OBE) is an educational theory that bases each part of an educational system around goals (outcomes). By the end of the educational experience, each student should have achieved the goal. There is no single specified style of teaching or assessment in OBE; instead, classes, opportunities and assessments should all help students achieve the specified outcomes. The role of faculty adapts into instructor, trainer, facilitator and/or mentor based on the outcomes targeted”
To implement Outcome-Based Learning (OBL) successfully, it is essential to first come up with a set of generic outcomes at the institute level, and then develop a set of programme learning outcomes that map onto the generic outcomes in a precise manner. At the course level, it is important to design attractive, comprehensible, attainable, and coherent course intended learning outcomes based on the programme learning outcomes, and ensure that the teaching and assessing strategies are closely aligned with these course intended learning outcomes. Feedback from students and teachers’ self-reflection is important for further adjustment and improvement of the whole practice.
Benefits of outcome-based education (OBE) system:
- The key principle of OBE states that all activities (teaching, assessment, etc.) are geared towards, not what the teacher is going to teach, but what the outcome of that teaching should be, what the learner is supposed to do and at what standard.
- OBE is a flexible, empowerment-oriented approach to learning. It aims at equipping learners with the knowledge, competence and orientations needed for success after they leave the institution. Hence its guiding vision is that of a competent future citizen.
- Success at the education institution level is of limited benefit unless learners are equipped to transfer academic success to life in a complex, challenging, high-technology future.
- The development and implementation of clear expectations regarding undergraduate and graduate student learning outcomes is a key feature of learner-centered education.
Advantages for instructors, educational developers, administrators and students:
- Providing a strategic way to enhance the quality of teaching and learning;
- Helping to ensure the approval and accreditation of new and existing programs;
- Providing a mechanism for ensuring accountability and quality assurance;
- Helping students to take responsibility for their own learning;
- Providing a means for students to articulate the knowledge, skills and experience acquired during their program;
- Providing a framework for collaborative curriculum planning;
- Providing a tool for evaluating and improving the curriculum; and
- Helping to encourage continuity between undergraduate, postgraduate and continuing education.
The various internal assessment tools for different subjects are decided and mapped to various action verbs so that they help to measure the performance of students.
A sample mapping of internal evaluation metrics to the measured verb is given below:
Evaluation module Verb measured
Seminar / Class presentation Understand
Demonstration / Technical presentation Apply
Experimental comparisons Analyse
Group assignment Evaluate
Mini-group project Create
This paper provides an overview of the key characteristics of Outcomes-Based Education and its application in various contexts. The approach is based on sound educational principles and provides a robust framework for students to acquire the necessary fitness to practice. The level of educator’s understating of OBE is still very low. For successful implementation of OBE, the educators should understand the OBE system.
All of sudden the traditional approaches should not be thrown away but should be used as a means towards implementing OBE. Educators should change or improve their ways of instructing and accessing the learner’s work. Affiliating universities should frame the curriculum, students assessing system (Examination question pattern) and teaching methodologies in such a way that the students should realize the importance of the OBE system. OBE is not the ultimate solution for the challenges facing students and teachers of today, but it is a good step on the road to reform.
The entire academic institutions in the nation should follow the common way of producing graduates following the OBE system. Then only the importance of OBE can be realized.